Connecting The Dots In Armizare
By: Tracy Mellow, Iron Gate Swordfighting


Armizare, the art brought to us by late 15th century fencing master Fiore dei Liberi as laid out in historical manuscripts he has left us, is a vast and complicated one. The art is so vast that if he were to try to explain all of the art, it would be a very large book, and would take a very long time to document. So Fiore has given us concepts that could be used throughout Armizare. Fiore intends you to understand the concepts behind the plays and techniques and applying them in real world situations. Fiore states numerous times throughout his sources that the art is connected. At the end of the Getty, he has a depiction of an unarmored horse and an armored horse tied to a tree. The tree represents the art, and the unarmored horse represents unarmored techniques, while the armored horse represents armored techniques. They are tied to a tree representing that all the branches of the art of Armizare, both armored and unarmored are tied together. There are many plays in the Getty which depicts an unarmored play but in the text, Fiore states that it is better armored.










There is a structure to Armizare. Each section has principles of the prior section, plus new principles added, usually with a transitional section showing that the art is connected. Dagger has principles of Abrazare plus new principles, and bridging the two sections is Baton, that used principles from both sections. Then Sword in one hand has principles of abrazare and Dagger, plus new principles, and is preceded by dagger versus sword and sword versus dagger. The sword in two hands has principles of the sword in one hand, dagger, and abrazare, plus new principles. Sword in armor has principles of sword in two hands, sword in one hand, dagger, and abrazare and is preceded by a section of various weapons with principles from the previous sections plus principles you need to know ….etc. That structure continues to the end of the manuscript.
In this article, we will explore these concepts. First, I will show you examples of techniques that Fiore has stated in his text in one section, referring to another section. Then I will give you examples of plays that are similar to plays of other sections. And finally, I will show you examples on taking a play from one section, and applying it to a play from another weapon, connecting the art.
I will be only using MS XV 13 “Getty” for the purpose of this article. However, the same concepts applies to all of his manuscripts, in fact some of the other sources has plays and concepts that are not in the Getty. I will be using the English version of the Getty that I created, and can be found on the Wiktenauer website as a free PDF book here:

0 Coverleather







Please refer to the credits page in the book for proper credits of the English translations that I will be using in this article.
There is also a structure to the plays themselves in the Getty. The structure of the manuscript goes the closest measure (Abrazare), to Dagger, to Longsword, to Poleaxe, to Spear, and finally the longest measure, Mounted. The same goes with the Novati manuscript. It is in reverse order in the MS. 383 Morgan, and the MS 11269 Paris manuscripts. The Morgan and Paris are in an order that is similar to the structure of judicial duels or fencing in the barriers. The Getty and Novati has a structure starting with the foundation of the art, so you should learn first(Abrazare) and working your way up to mounted in an order that is suitable for learning the art.
It is also important to understand the pedagogy of the manuscript. Here is a quick explanation. (Most of you should already know this, but am including it for those who don’t.)
Segno Master – Wears a crown. Provides you with the strikes of the weapon, and the virtues.
Instruction Master – Wears a crown. Provides you with instructions or fundamentals
Fight Master – Wears a crown. Is a Poste or guard.
Remedy Master – Wears a crown. is a remedy to an attack
Scholar – Wears a garter on a leg. Is the follow-on play of the Remedy Master
Counter Master – Wears a crown and garter. Is a counter to the Remedy Master
Contra-Counter Master – Wears a crown and garter. Is a counter to the Counter Master
Contra-Contra Counter Master – Wears a crown and garter. Is the counter to the Contra-Counter Master

Next to the images in this article are numbers and letters, indicating the location of that image in the Getty for you to easily locate if you so wish.

The first number is the folio (Page) number.

The “R” or “V” is Recto (Front of the page) and Verso (Back of the page)

The images in the Getty are laid out in quarters on each page. laid out like this:

A       B

C      D

As an Example, our first image is 8VC, which would be the 3rd image on the back of the 8th folio.


So Lets begin with plays that Fiore clearly references other sections.

The first time Fiore references another section is in the Baton section. In fact, he is having you go forward to a later section to get a further understanding of the play.









Here he tells us that this play is from the 8th Dagger Remedy Master:








Clearly, it is the same play, with the exception that the Scholar is sitting and has a baton.
Fiore then states that the counter to this Baton play is the same counter to the Dagger play:








The next play has the same concept, except with the 6th Dagger Remedy Master.















The counter to this play is the same as the counter to the corresponding dagger play.








The next concept Fiore tells us about, connecting the art is his “Elbow Push”. He tells us in the counter to the 7th Dagger Remedy Master that the elbow push is “Good against all close range plays of the Dagger, Poleaxe, and Sword, whether in armor or unarmored.”  He shows the elbow push in many of the sections, both as Scholars and Counters. These are just examples. There are more elbow pushes throughout the manuscript.






























































In the Dagger versus Sword section, Fiore tells us in the 2nd Scholar that he can “also bind the arm in the way that the fourth play of the sword in one hand is done.”








So once again, we have to go forward into the manuscript; 4th play of the sword in one hand








(Continued from 2nd Scholar of Dagger versus Sword)…….”and you can also find the middle bind in the third play of the dagger.”  So now, we have to look back in the dagger section to see this other technique Fiore tells us that we can do in this Dagger versus Sword play.










In the Sword in One Hand section, 3rd Scholar, Fiore tells us “I can injure you with a cut and a thrust. Also if I advance the forward foot, I can bind you in a ligudura mezana, which is drawn before, at the 3rd play of the 1st Master Dagger Remedy.”














In the Sword in Two Hands section, in Zogho Stretto, 13th Scholar, Fiore once again refers us to the 1st Dagger Remedy Master, and the follow on play which is the 1st Scholar of the 1st Dagger Remedy Master:
“This Play is taken from the play of the dagger which is the 1st Master Remedy, in which he put his left hand under the dagger to disarm, in the same way this Scholar has put his left hand under the right hand of the Companion to take the sword from his hand. Or he can put him in a ligadura mezana like the second play after the 1st Master Remedy of Dagger as said before. And that bind belongs to this Scholar.”


















So, it would then make sense that the counter to this previous play (Stretto 13th Scholar) would also be the counter to the 1st Dagger Remedy Master.

“I am the counter. And do the counter to the Scholar who is before me, who wants to do dagger plays, which are from the 1st Master Remedy, his 2nd play, which is after him. If with your sword you remain on your feet, I do not believe it.”















In the Poleaxe section, in the text for Porta di Ferro Mezana;

“If Posta di Donna is against me, Porta di Ferro Mezana, I know it’s play and mine. And many times we have been in battle with Sword and Axe. And I say that what she says she is able to do, I can do it more to her than she can do it to me. Also, I say that if I had a sword, and not an Axe, I would put a thrust in the face, that is, in the striking that Posta di Donna does with the Fendente, and I am in Porta di Ferro Mezana two handed with the sword, that immediately as it comes, I advance forward and pass out of the way, under his Poleaxe with force I enter and immediately with my left hand grab my sword in the middle and place a thrust in his face. So that between our others that of malice is little comparison.”









So there, Fiore references Porta di Ferro Mezana from the armored section. Sure, he is telling us how to beat an axe with a sword, and not directing us to another play in another section…or is he? He is giving us another technique from Porta di Ferro Mezana in the Armored section that is not stated in the text in the armored section. You can very well use the technique as described in the Poleaxe section in the Armored Longsword section…just against another armored opponent. Because Porta di Ferro Mezana in the Armored Longsword section is the only one that does not use your left hand on the blade….until you read about it in the Poleaxe section.

“I am called the Porta di Ferro Mezana because in armor or out I give strong thrusts. And I will step out of the way with my left foot and thrust my point in your face.”









Can you see now, that Fiore may not be intending you to use Porta di Ferro as depicted in the unarmored Sword in Two Hands section? You see, against an armored opponent, you need your left hand on your blade for point control to be able to thrust into unarmored areas. So the technique described in the Poleaxe section directly corresponds to the fundamentals of the Armored Longsword section. But then again, He may be describing the same action as set forth in the Unarmored section, and is merely describing how to defeat a poleaxe with a sword in the Poleaxe section. I’ll leave it to you to interpret. That’s half the fun of being a student of Armizare.


From the 4th Scholar of Largo, the Colpi di Villano (Peasant’s Strike):

“This play is called the Colpi di Villano, and is made in this way. That is, you have to wait for the peasant to strike with his sword, and the one who is waiting has to stay in narrow stance with the left foot advanced. And immediately when the peasant attacks to wound, step forward with your left foot out of the way, towards the right side. And with the right foot pass traversing out of the way, taking his blow in the middle of your sword. And let slide his sword groundwards, and immediately respond with a fendente in the head or in the arms, or with a thrust to the chest, as is drawn. Also, this play is also good with a sword against an axe, against a big stick, serious or in practice.”







What I wanted to point out here is the fact that Fiore mentioned you can perform this play against an axe, or a big stick. Because of the force those weapons are producing, you can easily pull this play off. But what isn’t mentioned, and I argue can be done, (I have done it) is to pull off this play with a Poleaxe against another Poleaxe. One of those things you can infer, even though it is not expressly dictated.


In the Mounted section;

“And if he turned around to the front he could well enter in Dente di Cingharo (Boar’s Tooth) with his lance, or in Posta di Donna la Senestra (Left Woman’s Position) and strike back and finish up, as it can be done in the 1st and 3rd plays of spear.”








So then we can look back at the Spear section under the Dente di Cingharo section to get the technique to use;

“We are three guards of the reverse side. And I am the First in Dente di Cinghiaro. Those that are on the right side do the same on the reverse. We pass forward out of the way, advancing the foot which is in front as said, out of the way. And we make our thrusts on the reverse side easily. And all the right side and reverse converge in beating thrusts to finish. Because other offenses with the spear should not follow.”





What is perplexing to me is that Fiore tells us in the Mounted play that the Master can also take Posta di Donna Senestra and complete the play as laid out in the third play of Spear. The third play of Spear is actually Posta di Fenestra Senestra, not Posta di Donna Senestra. I interpret it as him taking a Posta di Donna Senestra instead of Posta di Fenestra Senestra because you cannot do a fenestra with a lance, but you can still pull off the 3rd play from the Fenestra Senestra in Spear with the Posta di Donna Mounted as the beat and thrust are similar actions as in the 3rd play in the Spear section.











Those are some examples of plays that Fiore directly links to other plays from other sections. Now, lets take a look at some examples of plays that are the same as, or similar to other plays from other sections, even though they are not stated in the text.


The 1st Scholar of the Dagger versus Sword:








2nd Scholar of Zogho Stretto:







Now, just imagine if the 2nd Scholar of Stretto had a dagger in his hand. It could very well be the follow on play from the 1st Scholar of the Dagger versus Sword. Sure, how they got to the bind were different, but the follow on mechanics are similar.
The 1st Scholar of the Sword in One hand:








The 5th Scholar of Zogho Stretto:








The plays are very similar, with the exception of the opponent having one hand on the sword in one, and both hands on the sword in the other. The Scholar’s plays are identical other than how they arrived in the bind (Sword in one hand arrives in the bind in Fenestra, Stretto arrived in the bind crossed in the middle of the sword in Longa)
The 8th Scholar of the Sword in One Hand:

“You cast a thrust at me, and I beat it to the ground. You see you are uncovered, and I can injure you. Again, I want to make you turn, to injure you worse. And I will injure you in the middle of your back.”







14th Scholar of Zogho Largo:

“Also, when I have beaten back the thrust, or when I am crossed with a player, I put my hand behind his right elbow, and I push it strongly in a way that makes him turn and uncover himself, and then I injure him in the turning that I do.”








Yes, I already shown you examples of the elbow push, but wanted to show you these two plays as an example of plays that are the same from different sections of the manuscript.
6th and 7th Scholars of Sword in One hand:
















3rd and 4th Scholar of Zogho Stretto:
















Here, the ending actions are very similar. But how they got there was different. The Sword in one Hand play was the result of an elbow push, the Stretto play was the result of a pommel strike. Here’s why I think it’s important to mention these plays; It tells us that you can achieve this grapple from both an elbow push and a pommel strike. Now, lets say that you never study the Sword in One Hand section, and only study the Sword in Two Hands Section (Yes I know some that do). You will never know that you can perform an elbow push from Stretto because the elbow push is never depicted in Stretto, which I find strange since it is the grappling section of the Longsword. But from the play in Sword in One hand, it clearly shows you that you can perform that play in Stretto if presented with the opportunity. That is why it is important to study each section in the sources. But I digress, let’s move on.
11th Scholar of Zogho largo:

“The Scholar which is before me has beaten the companion’s sword to the ground. And I complete his play in this way. Having beaten his sword to the ground, I put my right foot strongly onto his sword. I can break it, or I can grab it in a way that he cannot offend me anymore. And if this is not enough for me, immediately when I put my foot on his sword, I injure him with the false edge of my sword, under his beard, in his neck. And immediately I return with a fendente of my sword, to his arms or to his hands, as is drawn.”







10th Scholar of the Sword in One Hand:

“This one attacked my head, and I beat his sword. I have come to this part. Also, I will make you turn, not to fail. And I put my sword to your neck, while I am daring.”








Here is an interesting concept. We have two similar plays, but the finishing actions are different. Who’s to say that you cannot perform the elbow push as depicted in the Sword in One Hand play in the Largo play? The beginning of the techniques are the same. Let’s say your opponent is wearing armor and thrusts at you and you perform the Breaking of the thrust as depicted in the Largo play. Can you complete the play as depicted in Largo? Not really. Can you complete the play as depicted in Sword in One Hand, by pushing the elbow and then thrusting him in the armpit or in a unarmored area of his back side? Of course you can. Are you beginning to see what this article is about? Very interesting stuff!


This play is connected to the other two just mentioned:







The play and final action is exactly the same as in the Largo play depicted above, except with poleaxes.

So there, you have a total of three plays from different sections that are similar.


Here is a concept of Measure in plays:


7th Scholar of 2nd Zogho Largo Master:








10th Scholar of Abrazare








What is important here is these are very similar plays, but at different measures, and one has swords. I argue that Fiore is telling us when you are in a tight spot, and you can’t figure out what to do next, when all else fails, Knee/Kick them in the balls!

The counters to these plays are likewise similar, other than which hand grabs the leg of the companion.


More similar plays:


From the Tutta Porta di Ferro in the Spear section;

“We are three masters in guards with our spears, conforming to the grips of the sword. And I am the first, which is Tutta Porta di Ferro. I am positioned to quickly beat the spear of the companion, that is I pass with the right foot traversing out of the way, and crossing his spear beat it to the left side. If I pass and I beat in doing that pass I injure the companion, this is a thing that is not possible to fail in.”

39R A/B39RAB








With the follow on play:

“In this play I will finish, from the three guards which were before: that is, Tutta porta di Ferro and Porta di Ferro Mezana and Posta de Fenestra Destra (Right). In this play finishes their plays and that is their art. As I will do for their part.”







Can you guess where I am going with this? I am hoping that your gears are turning in your mind at this point and can figure out which play this is similar to, if not identical.

If you said Exchange of the Thrust in Zogho Largo, you are correct!


“This play is called Scambiar de Punta (Exchange of the Thrust), and you have to do it in this way: When someone delivers you a thrust, immediately step forward your forefoot, out of the way, crossing his sword with your arms lowered and with you’re the point of your sword high, to his head or his chest, as is drawn.”







What I feel is important to point out here, is that in the spear section, Fiore does not explicitly state to keep your hands low and your point high. But does so in the Largo play. So it is important when learning a new play, to look for a similar play in the manuscript, or even another source, compare them and see if there are any fundamentals that you can learn from that will help you understand the play you are learning. I cannot emphasize that point enough, it is very important, and one of the reasons I am writing this article.


Now that you have seen examples of plays that Fiore references to in the text, and plays that he references to in drawings, let’s take a look at examples where you can infer a play with one weapon from a play from another section.


From the Sword in One Hand section:









Let’s say that the angle is wrong, and you are not able to get the ligadura Mezana as depicted in this play. Can we find another play, somewhere in the manuscript that may help us with a different approach to completing the play?

Sure we can. If you look in the Poleaxe section, the 5th Scholar performs a different grapple from a similar crossing. Instead of a Ligadura Mezana (Middle bind), we can perform a Ligadura Sottano) Lower bind as depicted in the 5th Poleaxe Scholar:









Are you getting the point yet? (Pun intended)

Let’s check out another one.


Let’s look at 10th Scholar of Zogho Stretto:






Now, can you imagine this play in a dagger senario? I can. Let’s say the companion has a dagger in an upward grip, and you cover in the 8th Dagger Remedy Master:








And he pulls away from the bind before you can preform a follow on play, just like the companion did in the 10th Scholar of Stretto, and as he pulls back, you release your left hand and grab the pommel of his dagger, just like is depicted in the Stretto play, and you stab him with your dagger. It works!


From the Sword in Armor Remedy Master:









Can you see pulling this play off with Poleaxe? It is very easy to perform from Posta Breve Serpentina with the Poleaxe:









Fiore does not need to repeat it in the Poleaxe section, because he has already covered it in the Armored Sword Section.

Last but certainly not least, one of my favorite hidden gems in this treatise, Posta di Fenestra Senestra!














Fiore never mentions Fenestra Senestra in the Sword in two hands section, but is a position I favor frequently when I am fencing with the longsword and that I teach in my classes. So, in order to document and justify the use of Fenestra Senestra with the longsword, I can use the principles as laid out in this article, and the depiction of it in the Poleaxe and Spear section to justify it. Sweet!

There you have it, how to connect the art from other sections. These were just examples. Now, grab your copy, and see what you can come up with.

Train safe and have fun!

Pulsativa, Instabile, and Stabile. Those words are only labeled with the Longsword Poste (Positions/Guards) in MS XV 13 (Getty) manuscript. They are not labeled in any other manuscript, and Fiore is mostly silent on their meaning or uses. There are two other places in the Getty in which they are mentioned; 36 Recto in the Poleaxe section he mentions that Posta di Fenestra Senestra (Left Window Position) does not have stability, making it an Instabile position. The last one is on 37 Verso in the caustic powder axe section, he talks about if he misses his opponent with the powder, he can defend himself with the Pulsativa positions of the sword.

To be fair, These labels are not the only subject touched on in the manuscript that Fiore is silent about. On page 22 Recto in the Getty to refers to the three turns of the sword:

“I say the the sword has three movements, which are Volta Stabile, Mezza Volta, and Tutta Volta”

He touches on that directly after describing the three turns of the body but gives us few clues how they are performed. There are a couple places in the manuscript in which he mentions a turn of the sword, but is silent on how the movement works. But just as the turns of the sword are important to understand, so are these Poste classification.

Even though Fiore is mostly silent on the matter, he felt they were important enough to put to the longsword Poste. Perhaps it was a subject he told to his students in person, or perhaps those classifications were part of the “common fencing” terminology during his time and were already expected to understand the terms, as Fiore only taught well trained swordsmen, that we know of. Fiore’s manuscript is the oldest known manuscript that deals with the longsword, So we do not have examples of the common fencing terminology of his time. We really have no way to know for sure, so we have to hypothesize as to their meaning. Many followers of Fiore have their hypothesis as to their meaning, and some don’t bother with the labels at all because Fiore is silent on the matter and believe they are not important.

I believe they are important in understanding the qualities of the Longsword poste, as well as the Poleaxe. So here is my current school of thought on Pulsativa, Instabile, and Stabile:



Pulsativa is a tricky word to try and understand when it comes to the meaning in Fiore’s work and also has the most interpretations. I believe it is derived from Latin, possibly “Pulsa” meaning to “Beat” or “Strike”. I take this not as striking in the offensive sense, but rather defensive. Looking back at page 37 Verso, Fiore implies that if the caustic powder does no good, or misses, he can defend himself with the Pulsativa positions of the Longsword. That leads me to believe they are intended for defensive purposes. In addition, I am taking account of the other two classifications; Instabile, and Stabile. Looking at the Poste assigned to them, they appear to be labeled as per their defensive qualities. Taking all three under consideration as a whole, it appears to me that all three classifications are intended to be qualities of defense.

Lets look at Pulsativa (Strongly covers/beats all blows)

There are three Pulsativa positions:

Tutta Porta di Ferro (Full Iron Gate)










Posta di Donna Destraza (Right Woman’s Position)











Posta di Donna Senestra (Left Woman’s Position)











Here’s what Fiore says about these positions;

Tutta Porta di Ferro – Pulsativa

“Which stays in great strength and she is good at waiting for every handheld weapon, long and short and if she has a good sword that is not too long. She passes with a cover and goes to close (Stretto). She exchanges the thrust and puts hers in. Also, it strikes back the point to the ground, and always goes on with a pass, and to every strike she makes a cover. And who in this one gives great defense does it without tiring.”

Nowhere in that passage does Fiore talk about attacking from Porta di Ferro other than a thrust after exchanging, which you are no longer in Porta di Ferro, but either Longa or Breve. So we can eliminate Pulsativa as meaning “Strongly strikes all seven blows” as is commonly represented. Fiore explicitly states that Porta di Ferro is a very strong defensive posture, and can defend against all strikes.


Posta di Donna Destraza – Pulsativa
“Which can do all seven blows of the sword. And of all the blows she can cover. And break the other guards, for the great blows she can do. And for exchanging the thrust she is always ready.”
There, Fiore does talk about Posta di Donna as an offensive position, but also can cover all blows. That’s where I believe it is Pulsativa, because it can defend against all blows.


Posta di Donna Senestra – Pulsativa
“Which of covering and of injuring she is always ready. She makes great blows and breaks the thrust and beats them to the ground. And she enters Zogho Stretto (Close Plays) thanks to the knowledge of how to cross. This guard knows how to these plays well.”
Again, the only common denominator amongst all three “Pulsativa” positions are their ability to cover all blows. Therefore, I define Pulsativa as a “Position in which can strongly cover/beat all blows of the sword.”



Now lets discuss “Instabile” (Unstable)

There are four Instabile positions:


Posta di Fenestra (Window Position)











Posta Longa (Long Position)








Posta di Bichorno (Two Horn Position)










Posta Frontale (Front Position)











If you look at each of these positions, you will notice a couple of things they have in common. They each have their hands away from their core, and their blade is offered for engagement. If your hands are away from your core, and your blade is offered for engagement, you are not in a stable position, hence, Instabile. And because they are not stable, you have to keep them moving. So I believe they are positions in which you move through to perform a defense. That is not to say that you cannot wait in these positions. Fiore tells us on page 36 Recto that he can wait in Posta Fenestra on the left making the opponent believe he is going to strike on the left, but enters on the right. So you certainly can wait in an Instabile position, but you will have to change positions to cover the blow or to strike because by themselves, they are not stable enough to withstand a blow unless it is moved into, or through.



Now lets discuss “Stabile” (Stable)

There are five Stabile positions:


Porta di Ferro Mezana (Middle Iron Gate)











Dente di Cinghairo (Boar’s Tooth)











Posta di Choda Longa (Position of the Long Tail)











Dente di Cinghairo Mezana (Middle Boar’s Tooth)











Posta Breve (Short Position)










Looking at these positions, they also have some things in common. Their hands are near their core and their blades are not offered for engagement, with the exception of Posta Breve, which we will look into last. This makes them stable positions in which you can wait in to defend, or even offend. Each of these positions have their limitations and cannot cover every blow, but are intended to be superior against certain kinds of blows, and do them well. Another thing they have in common is they are positions in which you can be relaxed standing in, saving energy for when the time is right to defend very quickly. If you are relaxed in a position, your muscles are not activated, and only activate when you want to move your weapon to defend, or offend as quickly as possible.
Posta Breve is an exception. If you look at Posta Breve, you will see the hands are near the core, but the blade is offered for engagement, making it a hybrid Stabile/Instabile position. Here is what Fiore says;

“This is Pota Breve, which wants a long sword and is a malicious guard which does not have stability. Furthermore, it always moves and sees if it can enter with a thrust or with a pass against a companion. And this guard is more appropriate in armor than without.”

So, even Fiore felt the classifications were important enough to mention that Posta Breve is also an Instabile position as well as Stabile.

In closing, I believe understanding the classifications of the Poste are very important to understanding the qualities of each position and what you can/cannot do from those positions as it pertains to defenses. If you understand the quality of a position, then you can come up with defenses from these positions that are not explicitly stated in the manuscript. I believe the manuscript is an abbreviated cataloging of the art, and cannot give you every defense possible. Understanding the qualities of the positions will help you come up with your own tool box of techniques to use.